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Umezu-He Agreement

In 1934, Umezu was appointed commander of the army of the Japanese Chinese garrison and provoked in Beijing, Tianjin and its surroundings. In 1935, he forced He Yingqin, Minister of Military Affairs of the Chinese Nationalist government, to accept the agreement by which Japan had taken control of strategic strongholds near Beijing and Tianjin, in order to prepare for its war of aggression against China. Umezu was appointed Deputy Minister of the Army in 1936 and participated in the conspiracy of the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, which marked the beginning of the Japanese War of Aggression in China. Chiang Kai-shek was then unwilling to go to war with Japan, while his forces were still linked in a campaign to eradicate the Chinese Communist Party, and agreed to abide by it. The agreement was reached between General Yoshijir? Umezu, Commander-in-Chief of the Army of Arms for Japan, and He Yingqin for China. [1] The Salvation Agreement (?? ? ?????, Umezu-Ka Okin Ky?tei) (Chinese: ????) was a secret agreement between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China. It ended on June 10, 1935, two years before the outbreak of widespread hostilities in the Second Japanese-Chinese War. The Japanese representation of the incident on the Marco Polo Bridge is as follows: on the night of July 7, the 12th year of Showa`s reign (1937), a Japanese department (Kiyomoto Squadron) was bombed while training on a training ground near the Marco Polo Bridge, on the outskirts of Beijing. The next morning, the Ichiki battalion was also bombed on the way and exchanged fire with the Chinese army in the city of Wanping. The fight on the Marco Polo Bridge degenerated into a „northern China incident“ following an illegal attack by regular Chinese troops on Japanese soldiers and a Japanese counterattack, turning all of northern China into a battlefield. This happened in the context of China`s refusal to join Japan`s proposed peace negotiations.

Japan`s interpretation of the Pacific War is a war to the death for Japan and the whole country and nation have been devoted to war to protect Japan. The United States, the United Kingdom, China and the Netherlands have formed an „ABCD Circle“ (abcd are the initials of America, the United Kingdom, China and the Netherlands) around Japan. According to Japan, it was the United States that denounced the trade deal, stopped the export of cast iron and other important resources, and then enacted a total ban on oil exports to Japan. Japan, which could not survive without oil, made several representations to the United States, but received in return only an ultimatum demanding that the Japanese withdraw completely from mainland China and Manchuria. Even if it had not been an option to go to war with the United States, the adoption of the ultimatum would have meant a national submission. Japan had legitimate interests in China, especially in northeastern China, obtained through its war with Russia, and Japan had graves of its dead soldiers there. Without the war, Japan would have lost its soul. That is why Japan decided to wage a desperate struggle instead of waiting for its downfall, vowing to continue the fight one generation at a time, even if one day it would fail.

The agreement gave Japan de facto control of Hebei Province under the aegis of the Eastern Hebei Autonomous Council. [2] Although the deal was reached in secret, its details were quickly leaked to the press, causing a rise in outrage and anti-Japanese atmosphere in China. . . .

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